FAQ UAS

Find an answer for your question

Which regulations are applicable on UAS when operated in Croatia?

  1. Ordinance on Unmanned Aircraft Systems “Official Gazette”, number 49/15 and 77/15
  2. Ordinance on the rules of the air “Official Gazette”, number 128/14
  3. Standardized European Rules of the Air (EU) No 923/2012
  4. Air traffic act “Official Gazette”, number 69/09, 84/11, 54/13, 127/13 and 92/14

Is it necessary to know the Operating Mass (OM) of the Unmanned Aircraft System?


Yes, the category of flight operations is defined by two classes:

a) the Operating Mass; and

b) the area of operations.

The Ordinance on Unmanned Aircraft Systems defines three weight classes for Unmanned Aircraft Systems, which are:

Class 5 : Up to 5 kilograms;

Class 25 : From 5 kilograms, up to 25 kilograms; and

Class 150 : From 25 kilograms, up to and including 150 kilograms.

How to calculate the energy of an UAS?


Example for DJI Phantom 3:

a) Operating mass: 1,28 kilograms

b) Horizontal flight speed: 16 m/s

Ek = (mv2)/2= (1.28 x 162)/2 = 163,84J

a) Operating mass: 1,28 kilograms

b) Height of flight is 20 meters

Ep = m x g x h = 1.28 x 9.81 x 20 = 251,12 J

If an UAS can develop energy greater than 79 J, provisions of the Ordinance on Unmanned Aircraft Systems are applied.

When are flight operations with an UAS allowed to be performed?


a) When an UAS operator submits the Operator’s Declaration to the Croatian Civil Aviation Agency (FOD-FRM-005) for performing category A, B or C flight operations, or

b) When an UAS operator obtains an approval from the Croatian Civil Aviation Agency for performing category D flight operations.

Is the procedure same for a person using an UAS for aerial photography or video recording for personal needs (in non-commercial purposes) and for a person using an UAS for commercial purposes?

Yes, the applied procedure is the same.

At what distance from a group of people are the flight operations allowed to be performed?


150 meters

Is it possible to obtain an approval for flying on a distance lesser than 150 m from a group of people from the Croatian Civil Aviation Agency?

Yes, it is. It is necessary to submit the Application for approval of Unmanned Aerial Systems Operations (FOD-FRM-003) for distances lesser than defined in the Ordinance to the Croatian Civil Aviation Agency.

It is necessary to submit an acceptable safety risk assessment documentation with the Request for the planned UAS flight operations.

Is it necessary for an UAS Handler to hold a specific license to operate an UAS?

No, according to the Appendix 4 of the Ordinance on Unmanned Aircraft Systems the Handler is obliged to hold the Declaration during the time of performing flight operations, in which s/he declares competence to operate an UAS.

When is an UAS Handler obliged to pass the theoretical knowledge examination of applicable aviation regulations which is organized by the Croatian Civil Aviation Agency?

An UAS Handler performing category C or D flight operations must obtain a certificate of passed theoretical knowledge examinations for UAS operator which is organized by the Croatian Civil Aviation Agency or needs to possess a pilot license.

What is an identification label and who assigns it?

Identification label is a proof of registration for an UAS. The identification label for categories A, B or C flight operations is assigned by the Operator but for the category D flight operations the identification label is assigned by the Croatian Civil Aviation Agency.

How to prepare yourself for the theoretical knowledge examination of applicable aviation regulations?

It is necessary to familiarize yourself with the following regulations:

a) Ordinance on Unmanned Aircraft Systems “Official Gazette”, number 49/15 and 77/15

b) Ordinance on the rules of the air “Official Gazette”, number 128/14

c) Standardized European Rules of the Air (EU) No 923/2012

d) Air traffic act “Official Gazette”, number 69/09, 84/11, 54/13, 127/13 and 92/14

Is it necessary to possess an approved UAS maintenance programme?

Unmanned Aircraft Systems must have accepted maintenance programme which can either be a part of the operations manual or a separate individual document.

Remark: Croatian Civil Aviation Agency currently does not approve maintenance programmes but evaluates them through the authorization of category D and/or through the evaluation procedure of the operations manual.

For category A and B flight operations currently, there are no requirements for a maintenance system.

The development of a maintenance programme is based on what?

The maintenance programme is based on documentation and manufacturer's recommendations. Recommendations and requirements from the aviation authorities, operative experience (if there is no technical documentation) …

What is considered as UAS maintenance?

All scheduled and nonscheduled checks, preflight checks and after flight checks included, troubleshooting and associated repairs.

Who is allowed to maintain an UAS?

A person authorized by the UAS operator and listed in the maintenance programme and/or operations manual, or the UAS manufacturer.

Is it mandatory to document the maintenance of an UAS?

Yes – documenting the maintenance must be done in the related books – it can be done through lists/books/ log books of maintenance but flight log book can also be used. Traceability of maintenance needs to be ensured.

Is it necessary for an UAS to have a built-in parachute?

It depends on the category of flight operations. Categories C and D must have a built-in parachute.

Multicopters with less than 6 engines are permitted to fly in category B only if they have a built-in parachute.

How many engines must an UAS have?

It depends on the category of flight operations. For the performance of operations in categories C and D it is necessary to have 8 built-in engines, for category B it is necessary to have 6 bulit-in engines (with a possibility of a lesser number of engines in configuration with a built-in parachute) while for the category A flight operations there are no prescribed requirements.

Who is allowed to manufacture an UAS or build it at home?

Unmanned Aircraft System weighting less than 25 kilograms – anybody who has the right level of knowledge, experience or education.

Unmanned Aircraft System weighting more than 25 kilograms but less than 150 kilograms for categories A, B and C flight operations - anybody who has the right level of knowledge, experience or education.

Unmanned Aircraft System weighting more than 25 kilograms but less than 150 kilograms for category D flight operations – persons/organizations which comply with the Ordinance on design, acceptance, construction and maintenance of aircraft not under the authority of European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).

Unmanned Aircraft System weighting more than 150 kilograms – regulated by the EU (EASA is the competent Authority for construction).

What is the Ordinance on design, acceptance, construction and maintenance of aircraft not under the authority of European Aviation Safety Agency?

It is a national regulation that must be met by the operator of an UAS which is used for category D flight operations and which operative mass is equal to, or exceeds 25 kilograms (alongside with operative requests defined in the Appendix 4 of the Ordinance on unmanned aircraft systems).

Does the built-in parachute replace redundancy of essential functions or components?

No – a built-in parachute is an ultimate safety measure. It is necessary to ensure a replacement for a component or the entire system when it stops functioning, in a manner where the redundancy takes over the functioning (either automatically or by command).

At what distance from people, animals, objects, vessels and power lines are the flight operations allowed to be performed?


30 meters.

Where can I find aeronautical information (controlled zones, flight rules, etc.)?

Aeronautical Information (VFR charts, AIP) can be found on the Croatia Control website on the following link:

www.crocontrol.hr

How can I determine if I am performing flight operations in a controlled zone?


a) It is necessary to check the VFR chart of the area in which the flight operations are planned.

b) If the flight operations are performed for example at the area of Opatija it is necessary to obtain an written consent for specific use of the controlled airspace from Croatia Control. The mentioned area is in a controlled zone (CTR Rijeka).

Outside controlled zone (CTRs) it is not necessary to obtain consent from Croatia Control up to 300m above ground.

You can check the boundaries of controlled zones (CTRs), here.

Remark: It is mandatory to ensure that flight operations are performed at the distance not lesser than 3 kilometers from airport and approach or departure path, except when specific procedure for unmanned aircraft flying are depicted in the aerodrome’s instructions for use.

Where can I find the Request for the specific use of airspace?

The Request can be found on the Croatia Control website on the following link:

www.crocontrol.hr